Who was/is considered the ancient father of the study of geography? Eratosthenes was born around 276 BCE in a Greek colony in Cyrene, a territory located in present-day Libya. As one of the founding fathers of ancient geography, Ptolemy is credited with the book “Geographia.” In the book, the geographer exercised the concept of segmenting the globe using a grid of longitudes and latitudes. until only the prime numbers remained. The catalog was made up of 48-star constellations that were visible to the pre-modern astronomer. One of them is considered as “the Father of Geography”, because of his important contributions in this field. During the Middle Ages, most scholars accepted Eratosthenes' circumference, though Christopher Columbus used Posidonius' measurement to convince his supporters that he could quickly reach Asia by sailing west from Europe. RIP: The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed away. The geographer used his knowledge of the earth, which he obtained from the mapping studies done by professionals before him, to come up with a map of the world in his publication “Geographika.” The book introduced the term “geography” to the world. The works of Strabo were influenced by earlier Greek scholars such as Hipparchus and Eratosthenes, with Strabo citing the two in his publications. The second book of "Geography" described the mathematical calculations he had used to determine the circumference of the Earth. Strabo’s best-known work was his “Geographical” publication in which he drew a relatively accurate map of the world as it was known to him. Knowing that the Earth was a sphere, he needed only two critical measurements to calculate the circumference. The book was among the first to outline the study of geography in history. The list of star constellations made the Almagest a book of great import to astronomers in Europe and Arabia in the medieval era. Another founding father of the discipline of geography was Strabo, a 1st Century CE Greek scholar who lived in the Amaseia in modern-day Turkey. One particularly impressive feat by Eratosthenes was that he was able to determine the circumference of the earth with remarkable accuracy without even traveling from Egypt. The map is known as the “Tabula Rogeriana,” was based on navigation information from Islamic merchants and earlier Islamic maps. By Joseph Kiprop on May 14 2018 in Society. Economic geography studies economic activity and how it relates to geographical position. Carl Ritter (1779–1859) – considered father of modern geography, occupied the first chair of geography … Branches of Geography? This page shows answers for question: Who is the father of physical geography?. The publication has one of the most exhaustive star catalogs of the pre-modern era. This measurement was used for hundreds of years and was even studied by Christopher Columbus 17 centuries after the death of Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word "geography" and other geographical terms that are still in use today, and his efforts to calculate the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Earth to the Sun paved the way for our modern understanding of the cosmos. Al-Idrisi would later move to Palermo, Sicily under King Roger II. In addition to being a mathematician and geographer, Eratosthenes was also a very gifted philosopher, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. Ptolemy’s model was the forerunner of modern map-making as it also measured latitudes from the “climata,” the word he gave for the equator. He was really the first to view nature holistically... See full answer below. Herodotus is called father of historical geography. The geographer also traveled to Cordoba where he received his education. One of the Ptolemy’s most famous books was the Almagest, which focused on astronomy. Dr. Yohannes Aberra. Ptolemy’s name suggests that he was born as a Roman citizen but of either Hellenized Egyptian or Greek ancestry. The ancient Greek scholar and Head Librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria, Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) is commonly regarded as the "Father of Geography" as he coined the word and, among other things, determined the circumference of the Earth. The book was among the first to outline the study of geography in history. The modern academic discipline is rooted in ancient practice, concerned with the characteristics of places, in particular their natural environments and peoples, as well as the relations between the two. He worked as a chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria for his way of learning. Fast Facts: Eratosthenes Known For: Eratosthenes was a Greek polymath who became known as the father of geography. The accuracy of the “Geographica” book was unchallenged for hundreds of years and was widely reproduced in the Byzantine Empire. Life. Greece - Just like the “Father of Mathematics,” Archimedes, and the “Father of Philosophy,” Socrates, the “Father of Geography” came from Greece. His map of the world, though highly inaccurate, was the first of its kind, featuring a grid of parallels and meridians used to estimate distances between different locations. Among his other many accomplishments were the creation of the first map of the world and the invention of an algorithm known as the sieve of Eratosthenes, which is used to identify prime numbers. A noted polymath, Eratosthenes also made notable contributions to the field of mathematics, including the invention of an algorithm used to identify prime numbers. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (in present-day Turkey) in around 64 BC. He calculated the circumference on his own and obtained a figure of 18,000 miles—about 7,000 miles too short. Aug 8, 2018 - Resources to go along with teaching from the book "Geography From A to Z" (http://amzn.to/2xH441o) written by Jack Knowlton. Eratosthenes' work introduced the concepts of torrid, temperate, and frigid climate zones. Had he used Eratosthenes' figure instead, Columbus would have known he was not yet in Asia when he landed in the New World. The term geography was first coined by Eratosthenese, a Greek scholar (276¬194 BC.). Like, Comment, Share & Subscribe our Channel اردو+हिंदी #Geography #FatherOfGeo #BranchesOfGeo By taking the angle of the shadow (7.2 degrees) and dividing it into the 360 degrees of a circle (360 divided by 7.2 yields 50), Eratosthenes could then multiply the distance between Alexandria and Syene by the result to determine the circumference of the Earth. The accuracy exhibited in the Tabula Rogeriana was remarkable considering the ancient technology employed by Al-Idrisi. The works of this geographer became the foundations of the study of geography. Eratosthenes was a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and poet long before geography became a thing. Unlike Eratosthenes, Strabo was well-traveled and had visited Kush and Egypt, and had journeyed as far as Ethiopia and Asia Minor. The word has been derived from two Greek words geo (earth) and graphos (description). Economic geography is an important field in geography, but also in economics. Many of Ptolemy’s works inspired younger geographers and were used for many centuries after his death. Eratosthenes was a 2nd century BC Greek scholar who is credited as the founder of the discipline of geography. And i also hop that you enjoy this blog post because you get here both father of Geography as well as fathers in different branches of Geography. Though Eratosthenes' original "Geography" did not survive, modern scholars know what it contained thanks to reports by Greek and Roman historians. For Exam Purposes Please do not confuse. So, Most scholars consider Eratosthenes as the father of Geography. As we now know, this was a critical error on Columbus' part. The map was used for hundreds of years after his death, with prominent explorers of later years such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus using the map for navigation. Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. However, four individuals are considered the founding fathers of ancient geography due to their contributions to the discipline; Eratosthenes, Strabo, Claudius Ptolemy, and Muhammad al-Idrisi. Ancient Arabic sources referred to Ptolemy as “Batlamyus” from Upper Egypt. Geography, the study of the diverse environments, places, and spaces of Earth’s surface and their interactions. Title page from Isaac Casaubon 's 1620 edition of Geographica. He was born in 276 BC. Hiccatius is often called Father of Geography. What is Geography? Eratosthenes already knew the approximate distance between Syene and Alexandria, as measured by camel-powered trade caravans. Rate and follow … Some historians point Anaximander, a 4th century BC Greek scholar as the true founder of the study of geography. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c. 276 BCE–192 or 194 BCE) was an ancient Greek mathematician, poet, and astronomer who is known as the father of geography. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, The Founding Fathers of Ancient Geography. Charles Darwin described him as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." are solved by group of students and teacher of Personal Skills, which is also the largest student community of Personal Skills. Continental Europe and the Mediterranean were well defined in Strabo’s map. is done on EduRev Study Group by Personal Skills Students. Eratosthenes is known as father of systematic geography, proposed the word 'Geography' first. Yohannes AberraOctober 1, 2020 Last July I sent the manuscript of my book on the Geography of Ethiopia, written for the first time in Amharic, to Professor Mesfin Woldemariam to review it and give me his blessings. Born: c. 276 BCE in Cyrene (present-day Libya) Died: 192 or 196 BCE in Alexandria, Egypt Father of Indian Geography – James Rennell So, i hope that your confusion regarding the father of Geography is clear now. October 1, 2020. His method involved taking a table of whole numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) Hiccatius is often called Father of Geography. A man of many firsts, Eratosthenes is also credited with the first world map in history, which was of impressive accuracy, as well as determining the tilt of the Earth’s axis. The geographer is believed to have been born in 100 AD in Egypt. His family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Al-Idrisi credited Claudius Ptolemy for the geographical coordinates used in his publication. Father of geography Eratosthenes FatherAlexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) – considered father of modern geography, published Cosmos and founder of the sub-field biogeography. Geographer George Chisholm wrote the first textbook on economic georgaphy and is credited as the father … Remarkably, Eratosthenes determined the circumference to be 25,000 miles, just 99 miles over the actual circumference at the equator (24,901 miles). But many of them also consider Hiccatius as the Father of Geography. Ptolemy was a 1st century CE astronomer and geographer from the Roman Empire. The third contained a map of the world in which the land was divided into different countries; it is one of the earliest examples of political geography. Besides, the geographer also published a book entitled, “Kitab nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi’khtiraq al-‘afaq,” in which he outlined geographic information about the world. The father of geography is the very famous Eratosthenes who belonged to Greece and was known for his multi-talent in mathematics,his hobby of writing poetries and his love towards geography. In fact, Eratosthenes is said to have invented the word “geography” along with other geographical terms. The father of physical geography is widely considered to be Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859). A few decades later, the Greek geographer Posidonius insisted that Eratosthenes' circumference was too large. Eratosthenes' most famous contribution to science was his calculation of the circumference of the Earth, which he completed while working on the second volume of his "Geography.". He was the first to use the word geography, employing it in a now-lost work titled Geographika. John Francon Williams (1854–1911) - author of The Geography of the Oceans . The geographer’s ancestors forcefully settled in Ceuta after the Zirids of Granada defeated Hammudid Malaga. After hearing about a deep well at Syene (near the Tropic of Cancer and modern-day Aswan) where sunlight only struck the bottom of the well on the summer solstice, Eratosthenes worked out a method by which he could calculate the circumference of the Earth using basic geometry. Find right answer with solution and explaination of asked question. In his old age, Eratosthenes became blind and he died of self-induced starvation in either 192 or 196 BCE in Alexandria, Egypt. However, these maps were basic regional maps and were laden with errors and exaggerations. He was also the first to use the word geography. The earliest world maps date back to the 9th century BC in ancient Babylon. ", Calculating the Circumference of the Earth, Famous People Who Worked at the Ancient Library of Alexandria, Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greek Scientists, The Ptolemies: Dynastic Egypt From Alexander to Cleopatra, Claudius Ptolemy: Astronomer and Geographer from Ancient Egypt, The Prime Meridian: Establishing Global Time and Space, Euclid of Alexandria and His Contributions to Geometry, How to Determine the Geometry of a Circle, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. Although Eratosthenes made a few mathematical errors in his calculations, the, canceled each other out and yielded an amazingly accurate answer that still causes scientists to marvel. Through maps and activities, children gain a thorough knowledge of each continent. Some historians believe that Eratosthenes was responsible for the leap day, and accurately determined the distance between the Sun and the Earth. He then measured the angle of the shadow in Alexandria on the solstice. A crater on the Moon was named in his honor. The geographer was born in 1100 AD in Ceuta, a town which was then under Almoravids, to a family that claimed to be direct descendants of Prophet Muhammad. The Questions and Answers of Father of geography ? Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. He is most famous for his calculation of Earth's circumference and for inventing the word geography. The “Father of Geography of Ethiopia” passed away. This was the first use of the word, which in Greek means "writing about the world." His name is Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Idrisi, better known as al-Sharif al-Idrisi, the most brilliant geographer and cartographer of all times. In his youth, Al-Idrisi spent most of his time traveling and was able to explore many regions in Europe including Pyrenees and Jorvik, and North Africa. He lived to be about 80 to 84 years old. Last July I sent the manuscript of my book on the Geography of Ethiopia, written for the first time in Amharic, to Professor Mesfin Woldemariam to review it and give me his blessings. Herodotus is called father of historical geography. Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. The father of modern geography was Carl Ritter who was the main founder of sub-field bio-geography and was also into the chair person of Berlin university. He was educated at the academies of Athens and in 245 BCE, after earning attention for his skills, he was invited by Pharaoh Ptolemy III to run the Great Library at Alexandria in Egypt. and striking off the multiples of each prime, beginning with multiples of the number two, then multiples of the number three, etc. ISBN: 9781420627053. He is a great mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. The Ancient Calculator - Eratosthenes of Cyrene (ancient Greek/Roman city on Med Sea coast of Libya today) created the study of geography at the Library of Alexandria What did Eratosthenes (using math & geometry & astronomy) contribute to geography & science? William Morris Davis (1850–1934) – father of American geography and developer of the cycle of erosion. Eratosthenes is believed to have been born in 276 BC in Cyrene and was the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. Ancient Greece saw the birth of the study of geography and with it the first true world maps. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography. The geographer used the length of the shadows at noon and the sun’s rays to come up with a formula that enabled him to calculate the earth’s circumference which according to him was 27,402 miles. Sir Halford Mackinder (1861–1947) – co-founder of the LSE , Geographical Association . Continental Europe and the Mediterranean were well defined in Strabo’s map. The accuracy of the “Geographica” book was unchallenged for hundreds of ye… Eratosthenes is generally considered as the father of Geography. Another founding father of the discipline of geography was Strabo, a 1st Century CE Greek scholar who lived in the Amaseia in modern-day Turkey. The first book of "Geography" contained a summary of existing geographical work and Eratosthenes' speculations about the nature of the planet Earth. This method became known as the sieve of Eratosthenes, as it works by filtering out the non-prime numbers in the same way that a sieve filters solids out of liquids. Born in Cyrene, in what is now Libya, in 276 B.C., Eratosthenes grew up curious and went to Athens to learn more about the world around him. He made several significant contributions to science, including the discovery that a year is slightly longer than 365 days, requiring an extra day—or leap day—be added to the calendar every four years to keep it consistent. The map was drawn in 1154 and is the first to show the whole of Eurasia and part of North Africa. Who Are The Founding Fathers Of The European Union? The geographer died in 1165 in his ancestral town of Ceuta at the age of 64 or 65 years. The geographer died in 194 BC but left behind a collection of books, many of which were lost during the Destruction of the Alexandria Library. Eratosthenes used the word Geography First. Eratosthenes was one of the greatest Greek polymaths, and his work influenced later innovators in fields ranging from mathematics to geography. William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography". Al-Idrisi was among the founders of geography, with one of the earliest accurate maps being attributed to him. Al-Idrisi was a 12th-century Arabic geographer, who was best known for one of the most accurate geographical maps of the ancient world. Strabo’s best-known work was his “Geographical” publication in which he drew a relatively accurate map of the world as it was known to him. Father of Geography? Ptolemy’s map of the world was quite accurate considering the technology of the time and showed countries as far out as China (Sinae) and Sri Lanka (Taprobane). According to most scholars, Eratosthenes is known as the father of Geography because he is considered to have been the first person to use the word 'Geography'. His father was a physician and when he died his widow lacked any means of support for her family of five. Eratosthenes is known as father of systematic geography, proposed the word 'Geography' first. He believed it was a fixed globe whose changes only took place on the surface. Your child will learn about the rivers and lakes, mountains and deserts, products and resources, climate and people of each continent around the globe. This discussion on Father of geography ? While serving as the head librarian and scholar at the Library of Alexandria, Eratosthenes wrote a comprehensive treatise about the world, which he called "Geography." This was a major opportunity, and Eratosthenes was excited to accept the position. 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